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    Título: Optimal Design of a Hybrid Membrane System Combining Reverse and Forward Osmosis for Seawater Desalination Autor/es: Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Caballero, José A. Resumen: In this work we study Forward Osmosis (FO) as an emerging desalination technology, and its capability to replace totally or partially Reverse Osmosis (RO) in order to reduce the great amount of energy required in the current desalination plants. For this purpose, we propose a superstructure that includes both membrane based desalination technologies, allowing the selection of only one of the technologies or a combination of both of them seeking for the optimal configuration of the network. The optimization problem is solved for a seawater desalination plant with a given fresh water production. The results obtained show that the optimal solution combines both desalination technologies to reduce not only the energy consumption but also the total cost of the desalination process in comparison with the same plant but operating only with RO.

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  • 12/31/14--16:00: El cuerpo humano
  • Título: El cuerpo humano Autor/es: Tamir, Abraham; Ruiz Beviá, Francisco Resumen: El cuerpo humano es la estructura completa del humano y comprende cabeza, cuello, tronco (que incluye el tórax y el abdomen), brazos y manos, piernas y pies. Cada parte del cuerpo se compone de varios tipos de células. En la madurez, el número medio estimado de células en el cuerpo es de 37.2 billones. La composición del cuerpo humano la constituyen un número de ciertos elementos químicos como Ca+2, Na+, K+, C, en diferentes proporciones. El estudio del cuerpo humano implica la anatomía (descripción de los órganos) y la fisiología (conocimiento de las funciones y procesos que tienen lugar en los órganos como componentes de un ser vivo).

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    Título: Uso de Google Calendar para la coordinación entre asignaturas del Grado en Ingeniería Química Autor/es: Gómez-Rico Núñez de Arenas, María Francisca; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Ortuño García, Nuria; García Algado, Pedro; Jurado Sobrino, Cristina; Aracil Devesa, José; Escudero Mira, Rubén; Yáñez Romero, Fabio Resumen: Uno de los aspectos peor valorados por los estudiantes de las nuevas titulaciones de grado es la coordinación entre asignaturas del mismo curso en cuanto a la distribución de controles y otro tipo de pruebas objetivas a lo largo del cuatrimestre, que afecta a la carga de trabajo no presencial en determinados momentos. En la guía docente de cada asignatura aparece la información sobre las pruebas a realizar dentro de un cronograma aproximado por semanas, y está disponible antes del comienzo del curso. Sin embargo, esa distribución puede variar ligeramente una vez empezado el curso debido a diversos motivos, y no se dispone de la información para todas las asignaturas del cuatrimestre en un mismo documento, lo que facilitaría su visualización. En este trabajo se propone el uso de la herramienta Google Calendar con el objetivo de tener un mayor control de este aspecto y poder detectar y corregir conflictos que puedan surgir, aplicándolo al Grado en Ingeniería Química.

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    Título: Representación de caras de personas por composición de imágenes diversas Autor/es: Tamir, Abraham; Ruiz Beviá, Francisco Resumen: El rostro es la superficie frontal de la cabeza y es crucial para determinar la identidad humana. En el artículo se muestran rostros no corrientes que están compuestos por yuxtaposición de diferentes imágenes más pequeñas, demostrando que con diferentes imágenes se pueden componer otras que al observador le producen la impresión de caras humanas.

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  • 05/31/16--17:00: Inventos
  • Título: Inventos Autor/es: Tamir, Abraham; Ruiz Beviá, Francisco Resumen: La invención es el resultado del poder creativo de la mente humana por el cual algo nuevo es creado. Lo creado puede ser algo intangible como una idea que en ocasiones también se puede plasmar en algo físico original (como una obra literaria o una pintura). Si la creación es un objeto, una técnica o un proceso que posee características novedosas y transformadoras se suele llamar invento.

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    Título: Google Calendar vs Google Drive para la coordinación de asignaturas del Grado en Ingeniería Química Autor/es: Gómez-Rico Núñez de Arenas, María Francisca; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Olaya López, María del Mar; Sánchez Martín, Isidro; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Ortuño García, Nuria; García Algado, Pedro; Aracil Devesa, José; Escudero Mira, Rubén; Yáñez Romero, Fabio; Paños González, María Resumen: Uno de los aspectos peor valorados por los estudiantes en las nuevas titulaciones con evaluación continua suele ser la distribución de controles y otro tipo de pruebas objetivas a lo largo del cuatrimestre. En la guía docente de cada asignatura aparece la información sobre las pruebas a realizar dentro de un cronograma aproximado, y está disponible antes del comienzo del curso. Sin embargo, esa distribución puede variar ligeramente una vez empezado el curso debido a diversos motivos, y no se dispone de la información para todas las asignaturas del cuatrimestre en un mismo documento, lo que facilitaría su visualización. Para el Grado en Ingeniería Química se comenzó a utilizar la herramienta Google Calendar con el objetivo de tener un mayor control de este aspecto y poder detectar y corregir conflictos que pudieran surgir. Sin embargo, se encontraron ciertas limitaciones y por ello se decidió probar otra opción distinta, un documento Excel compartido en Google Drive. En este trabajo se compara la experiencia con ambas herramientas.

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    Título: Shale gas flowback water desalination: Single vs multiple-effect evaporation with vapor recompression cycle and thermal integration Autor/es: Onishi, Viviani C.; Carreño-Parreño, Alba; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Fraga, Eric S.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: This paper introduces a new optimization model for the single and multiple-effect evaporation (SEE/MEE) systems design, including vapor recompression cycle and thermal integration. The SEE/MEE model is specially developed for shale gas flowback water desalination. A superstructure is proposed to solve the problem, comprising several evaporation effects coupled with intermediate flashing tanks that are used to enhance thermal integration by recovering condensate vapor. Multistage equipment with intercooling is used to compress the vapor formed by flashing and evaporation. The compression cycle is driven by electricity to operate on the vapor originating from the SEE/MEE system, providing all the energy needed in the process. The mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem optimized under GAMS software by minimizing the total annualized cost. The SEE/MEE system application for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) is investigated by allowing brine salinity discharge near to salt saturation conditions. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the optimal process configuration and performance under distinct feed water salinity conditions. The results highlight the potential of the proposed model to cost-effectively optimize SEE/MEE systems by producing fresh water and reducing brine discharges and associated environmental impacts.

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    Título: Process optimization for zero-liquid discharge desalination of shale gas flowback water under uncertainty Autor/es: Onishi, Viviani C.; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Carreño-Parreño, Alba; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Fraga, Eric S.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: Sustainable and efficient desalination is required to treat the large amounts of high-salinity flowback water from shale gas extraction. Nevertheless, uncertainty associated with well data (including water flowrates and salinities) strongly hampers the process design task. In this work, we introduce a new optimization model for the synthesis of zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) desalination systems under uncertainty. The desalination system is based on multiple-effect evaporation with mechanical vapor recompression (MEE-MVR). Our main objective is energy efficiency intensification through brine discharge reduction, while accounting for distinct water feeding scenarios. For this purpose, we consider the outflow brine salinity near to salt saturation condition as a design constraint to achieve ZLD operation. In this innovative approach, uncertain parameters are mathematically modelled as a set of correlated scenarios with known probability of occurrence. The scenarios set is described by a multivariate normal distribution generated via a sampling technique with symmetric correlation matrix. The stochastic multiscenario non-linear programming (NLP) model is implemented in GAMS, and optimized by the minimization of the expected total annualized cost. An illustrative case study is carried out to evaluate the capabilities of the proposed new approach. Cumulative probability curves are constructed to assess the financial risk related to uncertain space for different standard deviations of expected mean values. Sensitivity analysis is performed to appraise optimal system performance for distinct brine salinity conditions. This methodology represents a useful tool to support decision-makers towards the selection of more robust and reliable ZLD desalination systems for the treatment of shale gas flowback water.

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    Título: Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis for shale gas wastewater treatment to minimize cost and freshwater consumption Autor/es: Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Onishi, Viviani C.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: Shale gas production requires significant water demand for well exploitation and a great volume of wastewater is generated since nearly 70 % of the drilling water returns to the surface [1], as flowback water (FBW) and produced water (PW), with different salinities. Their treatment has a double benefit: treated water can replace freshwater (FW) and besides waste volumes are reduced. Conventional desalination technologies can be appropriate for FBW but not for the hypersaline PW. Forward Osmosis (FO) is a promising alternative to deal with PW which can be used as a standalone desalination process or as an advanced pretreatment for other technologies [2]. In this work, we propose a superstructure that combines FO with Reverse Osmosis (RO). Its objective is twofold: to minimize FW consumption in well exploitation as well as the volume of final waste. The superstructure comprises a RO unit; two FO units; and mixers and splitters allowing connections between the units. In the figure, the FO1 and FO2 units act as pretreatments for the RO and as waste concentrators aiming for zero liquid discharge (ZLD). In the F01 unit, FBW is diluted and the sludge from the previous pretreatment (where other contaminants apart from Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are removed) becomes concentrated. In the FO2 unit, the PW is diluted and the brine from the RO unit becomes concentrated. We formulated a bi-objective NonLinear Programming (NLP) problem that aims simultaneously to minimize the specific total cost ($/m3 drilling water) and the FW consumption (m3). The proposed approach is applied to a case study that uses 8500 m3/day of drilling water. The solution shows the trade-off between the cost and FW consumption and highlights the potential of FO to offer a solution for the treatment of the hypersaline PW and simultaneously reduce the shale gas waste volume. Descripción: 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE 27), Barcelona, 1st-5th October, 2017.

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    Título: Multistage membrane distillation for the treatment of shale gas flowback water: multiobjective optimization under uncertainty Autor/es: Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Onishi, Viniani C.; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Caballero, José A.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A. Resumen: In this work, we analyze the effect of shale gas well data uncertainty on the multiobjective optimization of a multistage direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) model. The uncertain parameters, flowrate and salt concentration of the flowback water, are modelled by a set of correlated scenarios. A bi-criterion stochastic MINLP was formulated to minimize the expected total annual cost (TAC) and its variability, controlled by the worst case (WC) risk management metric. The model was solved using a modified version of the sample average approximation (SAA) algorithm, which decomposes the original problem into two: a deterministic MINLP model and a stochastic NLP model. The solution is a set of Pareto curves, where the two global extreme solutions provide the DCMD designs that achieve the minimum expected TAC and the minimum WC, respectively. Furthermore, both designs are able to satisfy the zero liquid discharge (ZLD) requirement imposed in the outflow stream. Descripción: 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE 27), Barcelona, 1st-5th October, 2017.

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    Título: Multi-Objective Optimization of Renewable Energy-Driven Desalination Systems Autor/es: Onishi, Viviani C.; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: Environmental impacts related to increasing greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil-fuel reserves and water resources are major global concerns. In this work, we introduce a new multi-objective optimization model for simultaneous synthesis of zero-emission desalination plants driven by renewable energy. The system is particularly developed for zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) desalination of high-salinity shale gas wastewater, aiming to enhance economic and environmental system performance. The mathematical model is based on a multistage superstructure, which integrates a solar assisted Rankine cycle to a multiple-effect evaporation with mechanical vapor recompression (MEE-MVR) plant. For achieving the goal of more sustainable ZLD process, we specify the discharge brine salinity near to salt saturation conditions. The model is formulated as a multi-objective multiperiod non-linear programming (NLP) problem. The model is implemented in GAMS and solved via epsilon-constraint method, through the minimization of total annualized cost and environmental impacts. The economic objective function accounts for capital cost of investment and operational expenses, while environmental criteria are quantified by the life cycle assessment (LCA)-based ReCiPe methodology. A case study is performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed model. The obtained set of trade-off Pareto-optimal solutions reveals that integration of renewable energy generation to ZLD desalination plants can lead to significant cost and environmental savings for shale gas industry. Descripción: 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE 27), Barcelona, 1st-5th October, 2017.

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    Título: Water Management in Shale Gas: A Perspective from the Cooperative Games Theory Autor/es: Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Caballero, José A.

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    Título: Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis for Shale Gas Wastewater Treatment to Minimize Cost and Freshwater Consumption Autor/es: Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Onishi, Viviani C.; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: One of the challenges for the future of the shale gas production industry is the water management due to the large demand of water for wells drilling and fracturing and the high volumes of liquid effluent produced. On-site treatment is a convenient option for the reuse of the shale wastewater as drilling water for subsequent wells, which simultaneously reduces the freshwater consumption and the waste volume. While conventional desalination technologies are suitable for the treatment of flowback water, they are not appropriate for the hypersaline produced water, which is typically disposed into underground injection wells. In this work, we propose a mathematical model to address the optimal design of an on-site treatment for both flowback and produced waters, combining reverse and forward osmosis, to simultaneously minimize the freshwater consumption and the specific cost of the fracturing water. The results obtained show a clear trade-off between both objectives and highlight the potential of the proposed technology combination to give an environmentally friendly solution to the shale gas produced water.

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    Título: Optimal Shale Gas Flowback Water Desalination under Correlated Data Uncertainty Autor/es: Onishi, Viviani C.; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Caballero, José A. Resumen: Optimal flowback water desalination is critical to improve overall efficiency and sustainability of shale gas production. Nonetheless, great uncertainty in well data from shale plays strongly hinders the design task. In this work, we introduce a new stochastic multiscenario optimization model for the robust design of desalination systems under uncertainty. A zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) system composed by multiple-effect evaporation with mechanical vapor recompression (MEE-MVR) is proposed for the desalination of high-salinity shale gas flowback water. Salinity and flowrate of flowback water are both considered as uncertain design parameters, which are described by correlated scenarios with given probability of occurrence. The set of scenarios is generated via Monte Carlo sampling technique from a multivariate normal distribution. ZLD operation is ensured by the design constraint that allows brine concentration near to salt saturation conditions for all scenarios. The stochastic multiscenario nonlinear programming (NLP) model is optimized in GAMS, through the minimization of the expected total annualized cost. Risk analysis based on cumulative probability curves is performed in the uncertain search space, to support decision-makers towards the selection of more robust ZLD desalination systems applied to shale gas flowback water. Descripción: Presentation at the 27th European Symposium on Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE-27), Barcelona, 2017, 1-5 October.

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    Título: Holistic Planning Model for Sustainable Water Management in the Shale Gas Industry Autor/es: Carrero-Parreño, Alba; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Ruiz-Femenia, Rubén; Onishi, Viviani C.; Caballero, José A.; Grossmann, Ignacio E. Resumen: To address water planning decisions in shale gas operations, we present a novel water management optimization model that explicitly takes into account the effect of high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and temporal variations in the impaired water. The model comprises different water management strategies: (a) direct wastewater reuse, which is possible because of new additives tolerant to high TDS concentrations but at the expense of increasing the costs; (b) wastewater treatment, separately taking into account pretreatment, softening, and desalination technologies; and (c) the use of Class II disposal sites. The objective is to maximize the “sustainability profit” by determining the flowback destination (reuse, degree of treatment, or disposal), the fracturing schedule, the fracturing-fluid composition, and the number of water-storage tanks needed for each period of time. Because of the rigorous determination of TDS in all water streams, the model is a nonconvex MINLP model that is tackled in two steps: first, an MILP model is solved on the basis of McCormick relaxations; next, the binary variables that determine the fracturing schedule are fixed, and a smaller MINLP is solved. Finally, several case studies based on Marcellus Shale Play are optimized to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed formulation. The model identifies direct reuse as the best water-management option to improve both economic and environmental criteria.